Tuesday, December 1, 2015
Sunday, November 1, 2015
Citation: Rudnicki, Robert. "Toole's Proboscis: Some Effluvial Concerns in the Neon Bible." Mississippi Quarterly 47, no. 2 (1994): 221-236.
Annotation: As the title indicates, this article is primarily about Neon Bible; however, it does make some interesting observations about Confederacy. For example, the protagonist of Neon Bible, David, rails against intolerance. Ignatius, on the other hand, “ironically epitomizes the very intolerance that David rails against and is continually victimized by” (229). Rudnicki extends Clark’s position, arguing that Confederacy and Neon Bible both deal with the victimization of children, but in the case of Confederacy, the pain is covered “with a thick layer of … satire and scatology”. David is thin, diligent and supportive of his mother. Ignatius is fat, lazy, and depends on his mother. It is not critical to read this article when studying Confederacy, though it underscores the theme of child abuse throughout Toole’s writings.
Thursday, October 1, 2015
Thorpe, James. “The Aesthetics of Textual Criticism,” PMLA 80.5 (December 1965): 465-82.
“In a quite literal sense, the literary work is often guided or directed or controlled by other people while the author is in the process of trying to make it take shape, and it is subject to a variety of alterations throughout its history. The intentions of the person we call the author thus become entangled with the intentions of all the others who have a stake in the outcome, which is the work of art.” (Thorpe, 475).
As I discussed in the earlier blog post, according to Fletcher's book Ken and Thelma, Thelma preferred the original first draft of the novel. In his efforts to get the book published, Ken wrote several revisions. After his death, Thelma told Fletcher that she had destroyed the revised versions and eventually published the original first draft.
One interesting aspect of this textual history is that most contemporary writers have their original vision altered by editors in part to try to market their work to a broad commercial audience. Writers like Chaucer did not have to revise for the expectations of a mass audience. In the end, Toole's original intention for the text was preserved by the initial rejection by Gottlieb and by Thelma's subsequent actions.
Tuesday, September 1, 2015
I am currently enjoying the book Comedy, by Andrew Stott (Routledge, 2005). In the section on the Trickster character, he points out that Carl Jung saw the trickster archetype as a mirror of the development of human consciousness from savage to sophisticated, and as such, it was an immediate agent of chaos who ultimately is an agent of order and comic resolution (Stott, 54). The quote from Jung is from his Collected Works from 1959, though the text was probably written much earlier. Nevertheless, 1959 was just about the time Toole was formulating the ideas for Confederacy, and Jung's ideas may have been more prominent in the intellectual ferment of that time.
The quote from Jung is: "The marks of deepest unconsciousness fall away from him; instead of acting in a brutal, savage, stupid, and senseless fastion, the trickster's behavior towards the end of the cycle becomes quite useful and sensible." (Collected Works, v. 9: 266, as quoted in Stott, 54). So the concept appears to have been broadly present in literary culture at the time when Toole was creating his novel.
Sunday, August 2, 2015
Citation: Robinson, Michelle. "Two Men Walk into a Bar." In Detecting Detection: International Perspectives on the Uses of a Plot. Edited by Peter Baker and Deborah Shaller. New York, NY: Continuum, 2012, 59-79.
Annotation: This chapter approaches Confederacy from the perspective of the detective genre with Burma Jones as detective. It also compares Ignatius and his Journal of a Working Boy to John Howard Griffin's Black Like Me, which was published in 1961 and which possibly could have influenced Toole. Robinson claims that "What makes Toole's work particularly interesting, however, is that its detective plot is a foil for the dubious practice of activist 'ethnojournalism'" (62). This statement seems accurate to a point: there is a thread of the detective genre here, and Burma is effective where Ignatius is preposterous. But it ignores many other narrative threads, such as the story of Levys, and it misses more fundamental themes of the book, such as the critique of humanism and the use of carnival. This article is valuable but limited. It puts the Burma Jones / Ignatius Reilly relationship at the center, which I feel is unwarranted. She corrects the critical view of Jones by showing his influence over the end of the novel, but she overcorrects and ends up exaggerating that influence. I found valuable the discussion of the Freedom School curriculum, Griffin's book, and Norman Mailer's "White Negro." That critique probably was part of what Toole had in mind, and I agree that Confederacy stands as a critique of those fixtures of the 1960s. Finally, Robinson describes the scenes of the novel in excessive detail, so the article feels padded. Good, but limited.
Wednesday, July 1, 2015
For humor theory, I have been reading work by Michael Mulkay, Weems, Alan Dale, and others. However, I was quite taken by the video documentary made with Rowan Atkinson called "Laughing Matters." It was part of the series called "Funny Business." In it, the personality traits of the slapstick hero are listed. Here is the list from the documentary:
- He is alienated from the society around him: Ignatius stays in his room in his mother's house.
- He is childish: Ignatius thinks his mother should still support him at age 30.
- He has to fight with ordinary objects: Ignatius cannot even ride in a bus.
- His body can be humorous by itself: Did I mention Ignatius is obese?
- He is uncivilized and cannot or will not conform to social rules: Ignatius's first act in the book is to hit a policeman in the head with a rolled up sheet of music.
- He is a threat to respectable people: On first seeing him, the policeman immediately tries to arrest him. Even a strip-tease club wants to get rid of him.
- He mocks authority and politeness: Ignatius is rude and heaps scorn on everyone.
- He spreads confusion: Ignatius causes the climactic chaos of the book.
- He always survives his travails.
Monday, June 1, 2015
Citation: Reilly, Edward C. "Batman and Ignatius J. Reilly in A Confederacy of Dunces." Notes on Contemporary Literature 12, no. 1 (1982): 10-11.
Annotation: This brief article discusses the references to Batman in Confederacy. Reilly shows that Ignatius sees himself as a crusader, just like Batman. And just as Batman appears from nowhere, Ignatius, the green capped mother, really does appear when he is needed and saves people from their bad situations. Reilly analyzes the Batman references more accurately than Gardner (Comedy of Redemption in Three Southern Writers (1995) 117). He does not discuss the possibility that the Batman / Robin relationship is gay and the possible double entendre of Batman's "rigid" morals. Reilly concludes: “As do Salinger, Kesey, Heller, and Bellow, Toole believes that man must actively contend with the absurdities and injustices of life instead of isolating himself from them” (10). This conclusion is true for the other characters in the novel, but it ignores the fact that Ignatius in the end does not face the absurdities and injustices of life. His first impulse upon seeing Myrna is to strangle her. He is a force of disorder and only ends his isolation in order to escape. A good article, despite the problematic conclusion.